Volume 12, Number 2

Mobile Crowd Sensing RPL-based Routing Protocol for Smart City


Yahya Al Sawafi, Abderezak Touzene, Khaled Day and Nasser Alzeidi, Sultan Qaboos University, Oman


Recently, Mobile Crowd Sensing (MCS) has been usedin many smart city monitoring applications, leveraging the latest smartphone features of sensing and networking. However, most of these applications use a direct internet connection for sending the collected data to the server through a 3Gor 4G (LTE)network.This type of communication leads to higher bandwidth, battery consumption, and higher data plan cost.In this paper, we presenta new ad-hoc tree-based routing protocol named MCS-RPL based on theIoT RPL protocolfor the smart city context. The proposed protocol aims to utilize smartphone and Mobile CrowdSensing (MCS) opportunistically to support static Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)and to cover more sensing areas with less routing overhead and power consumption. MCS-RPL usesa grid-based cluster head to address mobility issues and reduce control packets. The conducted performance evaluation reveals that the proposed protocol outperforms RPL in terms of packet delivery ratio and power consumption due to control packet overhead reduction, which reached more than 75% in the tested scenarios.


MCS, Routing, ad-hoc, Opportunistic Networks, RPL, Smart City