Volume 13, Number 3

Clock Synchronization using Truncated Mean and Whale Optimization for Clustered Sensor Networks


Karthik Soundarapandian1 and Ashok Kumar Ambrose2, 1Bharathiar University, India, 2Alagappa Govt. Arts College, India


Clock synchronization is an important component in many distributed applications of wireless sensor networks (WSNs). The deprived method of clock offset and skew estimation causes inaccuracy, synchronization delay, and communication overhead in the protocols. Hence, this paper exploits two techniques of variation truncated mean (VTM) and whale optimization (WO) to enhance the synchronization metrics. Sensor nodes are grouped into several non-overlapped clusters. The cluster head collects the member nodes’ local time and computes the synchronization time 𝑆𝑍𝑑 using the truncated mean method. Nodes with a high variation in the timings compared to a preset value are truncated. The head node broadcasts the 𝑆𝑍𝑑 in which the whale optimization is aiming at each node to reduce the synchronization error. The intra and inter-cluster synchronizations are accomplished through the multihop message exchange approach. The theoretical analysis is validated, and the simulation outcomes show that the performance metrics in the proposed work are better than the conventional methods by achieving minimum error value.


Clustering, Clock Synchronization, Truncated Mean, Whale Optimization, Clock Time Duration.