Volume 15, Number 2

Performance Evaluation of ERGR-EMHC Routing Protocol using LSWTS and 3DUL Localization Schemes in UWSNs


Faiza Al-Salti1, N. Alzeidi2, Khaled Day2, Abderezak Touzene2, 1Sultan Qaboos Comprehensive Cancer Care and Research Centre, Oman, 2Sultan Qaboos University, Oman


This paper studies the impact of different localization schemes on the performance of location-based routing for UWSNs. Particularly, LSWTS and 3DUL localization schemes available in the literature are used to study their effects on the performance of the ERGR-EMHC routing protocol. First, we assess the performance of two localization schemes by measuring their localization coverage, accuracy, control packets overhead, and required localization time. We then study the performance of the ERGR-EMHC protocol using location information provided by the selected localization schemes. The results are compared with the performance of the routing protocol when using exact nodes’ locations. The obtained results show that LSWTS outperforms 3DUL in terms of localization accuracy by 83% and localization overhead by 70%. In addition, the results indicate that the localization error has a significant impact on the performance of the routing protocol. For instance, ERGR-EMHC with LSWTS is better in delivering data packets by an average of 175% compared to 3DUL.


Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs), localization, ranging localization methods, localization error, location-based routing