Volume 9, Number 4

Challenges of Distance, Blended, and Online Learning: A Literature based Approach


Godfred Yaw Koi-Akrofi, Emmanuel Owusu-Oware and Hannah Tanye, University of Professional Studies, Ghana


The objectives of the study were to show the basic differences between Distance, Blended and Online learning, and establish their common challenges from literature. Approximately 35 categories/sets of research results or findings from more than 65 publications were reviewed and used for this work. Articles were obtained from sources such as Google Scholar, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Google Search Engine, and Elsevier. The key themes used for the search are Distance education, Distance learning, Online learning, Blended learning, Differences between face-to-face and online learning, and the use of the internet for learning. The differences between Distance, Blended, and Online Learning (DBOL) modes were summarized, and 11 challenges of DBOL were realized. These 11 challenges were summarized into six themes namely, lack of infrastructure, low or no IT skills, self-disciplinary problems, content issues, policy issues, and social issues. It was strongly advised that, for effective DBOL implementation and operation, there must be in place a solid DBOL policy, adequate infrastructure, and constant training of stakeholders on the use of learning management systems and the development of related IT skills in general.


Blended, online, distance, learning, face-to-face, internet.