Volume 11, Number 6

State-of-the-art of the Physical Layer in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks


Faiza Al-Salti1 and N. Alzeidi2, 1Muscat College, Oman and 2Sultan Qaboos University, Oman


With the current technology revolution, underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) find several applications such as disaster prevention, water quality monitoring, military surveillance and fish farming. Nevertheless, this kind of networks faces a number of challenges induced by the nature of the underwater environment and its influence on the network physical media. Therefore, the ultimate objective of this paper is to lay down the key aspects of the physical layer of the underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). It discusses issues related to the characteristics and challenges of the underwater communication channel, differences between terrestrial wireless sensor networks and UWSNs, and acoustic propagation models in underwater. The paper also surveys some of the underwater acoustic modems. This study is essential to better understand the challenges of designing UWSNs and alleviate their effects.


Underwater wireless sensor networks, physical layer, acoustic, communication, channel models & acoustic modem